Gujarat Medical Education & Research Society
Health and Family Welfare Department, Government of Gujarat

02772 290129

GMERS Medical College &Hospital , Himmatnagar

Physiology

Physiology

Message From the HEAD of the Department
Welcome to the Department of Physiology

The Physiology department is an intellectually vibrant place.
This Departmental page is designed to introduce visitors and students to our Department, its research, teaching, and administrative activities. It also serves as a major mechanism of communication between the Department and our students and administrative staff.
Physiology is the study of how the body works in health and disease at all levels including molecular, genomic, proteomic, ionic, cellular, organ and whole organism. The essence of research and teaching in Physiology requires an enquiring mind anchored on a global and integrative perspective to the understanding of how things work in a living organism.

Department was established in 2011 in New building in GMERS Medical College campus with annual intake capacity of 150 students. Department is located on First floor and has infrastructure adequate to cater the need of 150 admissions per year.


The Department of Physiology at GMERS Medical College, Gandhinagar is committed to excellence in teaching, research and service. Members of the faculty are actively involved in educational programs in the college. Members of the Department of Physiology, conduct research in the areas of cardiovascular, Pulmonary, Neurophysiology, and endocrine physiology. Members of the faculty of the Department of Physiology are involved in collaborative research with clinicians from the Departments of Medicine, Surgery, and Pediatrics in the College.

We are committed to help equip and infuse in our students a life-long love for learning, the excitement of discovery and a keen sense of curiosity about the chemical, physical and biological functions of life.


I welcome you to the Department and do not hesitate to see me over any issues. We operate an open door policy. Also all academic staff members have office hours during which they are available for consultation and discussion outside the formal teaching sessions.


I wish you a rewarding and stimulating learning experience at the Department of Medical Physiology and The GMERS Medical College, Gandhinagar.

Head of the Department

2011 Onwards : Dr. S. M Joshi

GOAL :the broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in physiology aims at providing the student comprehensive knowledge of normal functions of body and to facilitate the understanding of physiological basis of health and disease.

OBJECTIVES :

A) Knowledge:- At the end of the course the student shall be able to

  1. Understand the functions of all organ system and their interactions.
  2. Assess relative contribution of each organ system in maintenance of milieu interior
  3. Describe physiological response and adaptation to environmental stress.
  4. List the physiological principles underlying pathogenesis and treatment of diseases.
B) SKILLS :-At the end of the course the student shall be able to

  1. Conduct experiments/Investigations designed for study of physiological phenomenon
  2. To interpret expt/ Investigations data
  3. Distinguish between normal and abnormal data derived as result of test done in lab.

C) Integration :- At the end of the course the student shall be able to

Acquire an integrated knowledge of organ, structure, function, and its Regulatory mechanism and apply the knowledge in understanding of disease and its treatment.

Total Teaching hours :- 480 Hours (240 Hours/term)

Facilities :-

Infrastructure
The department has enough space to accommodate 150 students.

  • Lecture hall and two demonstration rooms of required capacity and equipped with audiovisual aids.
  • Well-equipped hematology, clinical physiology, amphibian physiology, mammalian physiology and research laboratory with adequate seating capacity and preparation rooms.
  • Offices for teaching and paramedical staff
  • Departmental library, seminar room, store room
  • Possess central animal house with breading and experimental facility
  • Department has dedicated broadband connection with membership to govt. of gujarat virtual library project through which hundreds of journals and books are accessible online
  • Department has dedicated fulltime faculties (as private practice of any kind is not permissible as per recruitment rules of govt.of gujarat).department has adequate number of teaching faculties as per medical council of india guidelines to maintain teacher:student ratio to 1:10.

Subject Curriculum :

THEORY

  • General :
    1. Cell physiology
    2. Homeostasis
    3. Transport across cell membrane
    4. Biophysics-general principles
    5. Body fluid compartment
    6. Related topics & applied physiology
      TOTAL : 5-8 lectures

  • Hematology :
    1. Composition properties and functions of blood
    2. R.B.C.s their formation & functions
    3. Hemoglobin
    4. Anemias and blood indices
    5. Leukocytes - formation and functions
    6. Thrombocytes and hemostasis, Blood Coagulation
    7. Plasma proteins & E.S.R.
    8. Lymph and R.E. System
    9. Blood groups
    10. Immunity
    11. Blood Volume
    12. Related topics & applied physiology
      Total : 20-25 Lectures

  • Nerve & Muscle Physiology :
    1. Membrane potential & action potential
    2. Structure & classification of nerve fibers
    3. Properties of nerve cells and their fibers (including Degeneration & Regeneration)
    4. Neuromuscular transmission
    5. Structure, functions and properties of muscles
    6. Mechanism of contraction of difference types of muscles
    7. Physiological changes during muscle contractions
    8. Related topics & applied physiology
      Total : 15-20 Lectures

  • Gastrointestinal tract :
    1. Anatomical physiology
    2. Secretion & their control-Salivary, Gastric, Pancreatic, Intestinal
    3. Bile including liver function tests & Jaundice
    4. Digestion
    5. Absorption
    6. Movements of Gastrointestinal tract
    7. Hormones of GIT
    8. Related topics & applied physiology
      Total : 15-20 Lectures

  • Respiration System :
    1. Physiological anatomy of respiratory tract
    2. Mechanics of respiration (including pressure & volume changes)
    3. Lung volume, capacities and lung function tests
    4. Composition of respiratory gases
    5. Transport of Oxygen in Blood
    6. Transport of Carbon dioxide in Blood
    7. Regulations of respiration
    8. Hypoxia, Asphyxia
    9. Cyanosis and periodic breathing
    10. Dysbarism and acclimatization to high altitude
    11. Exercise and space Physiology
    12. Related topics & applied physiology
      Total : 15-20 Lectures

  • Cardiovascular System :
    1. Functional anatomy of heart
    2. Origin and spread of cardiac impulse
    3. Cardiac cycle (with heart sounds and pressure changes)
    4. Electrocardiogram
    5. Heart rate
    6. Cardiac output & venous return
    7. Arterial blood pressure
    8. Arterial and venous pulse
    9. Circulation –Capillary, coronary, pulmonary and sytemic circulation
    10. Hemorrhage, Hypovolemic shock
    11. Cardiovascular change during exercise and cardiac efficiency tests.
    12. Related topics & applied physiology
      Total : 20-25 Lectures

  • Excretory System :
    1. Physiological anatomy of Kidney
    2. Renal Circulation
    3. Glomerular filtration rate
    4. Functions of renal tubules
    5. Reabsorpotion of physiologically important substances
    6. Counter current mechanism
    7. Hormogenesis- renin erythropoietin
    8. Role of kidney in acid-base balance in body
    9. Micturition
    10. Renal function tests
    11. Functions of skin
    12. Regulations of body temperature
    13. Related topics & applied physiology
      Total : 10-15 Lectures

  • Central Nervous System& ANS :
    1. Introduction
    2. Synapse and synaptic transmission
    3. Automatic nervous system (including Adrenal medulla)
    4. Sensory system- receptor & their properties, sensations
    5. Spinal Cord : Tracts and lesions
    6. Reflexes
    7. Motor organization
    8. Brain stem (including vestibular apparatus)
    9. Basal Ganglia
    10. Cerebellum
    11. Tone, posture and equilibrium
    12. Motor control mechanism
    13. Thalamus
    14. Hypothalamus
    15. Limbic cortex
    16. Cerebral cortex
    17. Higher functions-Speech, Learning and memory
    18. Electroencephalogram and sleep
    19. Cranial Nerves
    20. Pain
    21. CSF
    22. Related topics & applied physiology
      Total : 35-40 Lectures

  • Special Senses :
    1. Structure of eye
    2. Refractory medias of eye heir errors and corrections
    3. Retina : Structure, photochemistry
    4. Visual pathways and its lesions
    5. Visual activity and binocular vision
    6. Accommodation and adaptations to darkness
    7. Color Vision
    8. Visual perceptions : Central mechanism
    9. Physiological movements of eye
    10. Functional anatomy of ear
    11. Structure and functions of middle ear
    12. Organs of Corti and mechanism of hearing
    13. Endocochlear potentials and auditory pathways
    14. Deafness and tests of hearing
    15. Taste and smell
      Total : 15-20 Lectures

  • Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology :
    1. Introduction
    2. Hypothalamohypophyseal axis
    3. Hypothalamohypophyseal axis
    4. Anterior pituitary gland (including growth and development)
    5. Posterior pituitary gland
    6. Thyroid gland
    7. Hormonal control of blood calcium level
    8. Endocrine pancreas
    9. Andrenal gland
    10. Hormones of heart, kidney and thymus
    11. Introduction to reproductive physiology
    12. Male reproductive system : structure, functions
    13. Female reproductive system : structure, functions & reproductive cycles
    14. Fertilizations, placenta, pregnancy and pregnancy tests
    15. Parturition and lactation
    16. Physiological basis of family planning
    17. Related topics & applied physiology
      Total : 15-20 Lectures

BIOPHYSICS :-

  • Principles of biophysics and its applied aspects
  • Biopotentials and its applied aspects
  • Transport across cell membrane
  • related applied topics
    Total: 3-4 Lectures

ENVIRONMENTAL, REGULATORY & EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY:-

  • Physiology of high altitude, acclimatization & effect of high atmospheric pressure
  • Aviation & space physiology
  • Body temperature regulation, Hypo & Hyperthermia
  • Physiology of exercise & yoga
    Total :3-4 Lectures

PRACTICALS

  • General Practical:
    1. Study of appliances - Experimental instruments
    2. Study of appliances - Hematology and clinical instruments
    3. Study of appliances - Compound microscope

  • Hematology Practical:
    1. Estimation of haemoglobin
    2. Total white cell count
    3. Total red cell count
    4. Cells in peripheral blood film
    5. Differential WBC count
    6. Absolute count, Arneth count
    7. Packed cell volume & Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
    8. Blood indices and related calculation
    9. Blood grouping
    10. Coagulation - B.T.& C.T.
    11. Effect of tonicity of saline, fragility :
    12. MCD, price jone’s curve :
    13. Haemin crystals, reticulocyte count

  • Clinical Physiology Practical:
    1. Radial pulse, Sphygmography
    2. Arterial blood pressure
    3. Cardiac efficiency tests
    4. Clinical examination in general
    5. Clinical examination of Cardiovascular system
    6. Clinical examination of Respiratory system
    7. Artificial respiration and Cardio pulmonary resuscitation
    8. Spirometry
    9. Respiratory efficiency tests
    10. Stethography
    11. Examinations of sensory functions
    12. Examinations of motor functions
    13. Examinations of reflexes
    14. Examinations of cranial nerves – I,III,IV,V,VI
    15. Examinations of cranial nerves – II
    16. Examinations of cranial nerves – VII,VIII, IX.X.XI,XII
    17. CNS higher functions
    18. Clinical examinations of abdomen
    19. Thermometry
    20. Ergography
    21. Endocrine disorder photographs
    22. O2 and CO2 dissociation curve
    23. ECG
    24. EEG- EMG
    25. Contraceptives, menstrual cycle and BBT
    26. GTT- GFT
    27. Excretory system –Cystometrogram, Renal function tests

  • Amphibian practical
    1. Gastrocnemius muscle, sciatic nerve preparation
    2. Simple muscle curve,
    3. Effect of temperature on SMC
    4. Effect of load on SMC
    5. Effect of two successive stimuli
    6. Genesis of tetanus
    7. Phenomenon of Fatigue
    8. Velocity of nerve impulse
    9. Perfusion of amphibian heart
    10. Frog’s heart beat & Effect of temperature on frog’s heart
    11. Properties of cardiac muscle
    12. Effect of vagus, crescent stimulation and vagal escape.
    13. Effect of drugs & ions on frog’s heart
    14. Perfusion of isolated amphibian heart
    15. Perfusion of isolated amphibian heart
    16. Quantal summation & Strength duration curve

  • Mammalian practicals
    1. Recording of heart beat and respiration
    2. Perfusion of guinea pig ileum
    3. Perfusion of guinea pig jejunum
    4. Recording of blood pressure and respiration of dog
    5. Effect of drugs on blood pressure of dog

TUTORIALS

1. Haemoglobin 1
2. Blood groups 2
3. Neurons and Neuroglia 1
4. Rigor mortis & Myasthenia gravis 1
5. Lymph & R.E. System 1
6. Radial pulse Tracing 1
7. Bleeding Disorders 1
8. Isotonic & Isometric contraction 1
9. Hypoxia, O2 therapy & cyanosis 1
10. Deglutition and vomiting 1
1. Haemoglobin 1
11. Emptying of stomach & peristalsis 1
12. Movements of small & large intestine, Defecation 1
13. Skin – structure & function 1
14. Asphyxia, Hypercapnia 1
15. O2 & CO2 dissociation curve periodic breathing 1
16. Acidification of urine, role of kidney in Ph regulation 1
17. Adrenal Medulla 1
18. Cutaneous Circulation 1
19. E.E.G. 1
20. Speech and Aphasia 1
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SEMINAR TOPICS OF PHYSIOLOGY

ROLL NO. SEMINAR TOPIC
1 FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD
2 PLATELETS AND ITS FUNCTION
3 ANAEMIA
4 POLYCYTHEMIA
5 ERYTHROPOIESIS
6 ANTICOAGULANTS
7 MECHANISM OF CLOTTING
8 IMMUNITY
9 LYMPH
10 SARCOMERE
11 MECHANISM OF SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION
12 PROPERTIES OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
13 NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
14 CLASSIFICATION OF NERVES
15 RESTING MEMBRANE & ACTION POTANTIAL
16 MECHANISM OF CONTRACTION IN SMOOTH MUSCLE
17 EXCITATION-CONTRATION COUPLING OF SMOOTH,SKE,AND CARDIAC MUSCLE
18 CARDIAC CYCLE
19 HEART SOUND
20 B.P-SHORT TERM REGULATION
21 B.P-LONG TERM REGULATION
22 CARDIAC OUTPUT
23 VENOUS RETURN
24 PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE
25 PCV
26 ESR
27 CORONARY CURCULATION


EXAMINATION PATTERN There are system ending examination after completion of every systems in the department.

These examinations are in the form of MCQ exams, Short Questions, Long Questions, Quiz.

First periodic test (theory) -------taken around Oct-November month

First Internal test (theory and Practical)-----taken around Dec -January

Second Periodic Test (theory)------taken around April

Second Internal Test ( Preliminary Exams Theory & Practical) ---taken around May

Final University Exams
Marks scheme For University Exams (as per Gujarat University)

1. Theory
Paper-I 50 marks 3 hours
Paper-II 50 marks 3 hours
Internal assessment 20 marks
__________
120 marks
2. Practicals 80 marks


Topics division

Paper –I

General physiology, Biophysics, Blood, Excretory system including skin, Cardio-vascular system and Respiratory system, Environmental physiology and Exercise physiology.

Paper-II

Nerve-muscle physiology, Special senses, Central nervous system including autonomic nervous system, Digestive system, Endocrine system and Reproductive system.

University Exam:
1. It is required to pass theory and practical exam separately. i.e. failing in any head means to reapper for both theory and practical exam.